Lesson 10 of 15: Describing with adjectives, prepositions- Spanish in 30 Minutes a Day

spanish adjectives prepostions

Today we’ll learn a little bit of everything as we kind of tie it all together… like how to use the word “it” in Spanish and how to describe things with the most common adjectives and prepositions.

Read on!

Pronouns and Objects

Pronouns often go in front of the verb in Spanish whereas in English they often come after. Also, in English, the word “it” can be used to represent anything,whereas in Spanish the word for “it” has to agree in both gender (el (mas), la (fem)) and number (los, las) with the noun it represents.

For example:

Tengo la toalla. = Yo la tengo.  (use “la” because the noun is fem.)
I have the towel. = I have it.
Tienes el cepillo. = Tú lo tienes. (use “lo” because the noun is mas.)
You have the brush. = You have it.
Quiero los boletos. = Los quiero.
I want the tickets. = I want them. (use “los” because the noun is plural)
Quieren los pasajes. = Los quieren.
They want the bus tickets. = They want them.

Exercise: Now you try a few

Example: Quiero el cepillo.= Lo quiero. (el cepillo=brush)
1. Quieren la maleta. = ____ quieren.
2. Tengo los zapatos. = _____ tengo.
3. Sabes quien tiene el teléfono? = Mark ____ tiene.
4. Tienes las computadoras? = Sí, _____ tengo.
5. Viste la ropa? = _____ vi.
6. Cambia la gorra. = ______ voy a cambiar.
7. Toco el espejo. = ______ toco.
8. Veo el televisor. = _____ veo.

Indirect Objects (people):

Use when you want to express “who” the action is done to.Depending on “who” use:
Me- I
Te- you
Le- he/she
Les- them
Nos- we

Examples:

-Conoces a Juan? = Sí, le conozco.
Do you know Juan? = Yes, I know him.

-Te lo doy. = I give it to you.
-Nos dice el señor. = The man tells us.

Exercise : Replace the subjects with “le, les, te, me, nos”

Example: Juan dice a Mark que no. = Juan le dice que no.

1. Conoces a Julio y Maria? = _____ Conoces?
2. Qué vas a decir a Juan? = Qué ____ vas a decir?
3. Cuando vas a dar a nosotros? = Cuando ___ vas a dar?
4. Vas a pasar la pelota a Juan? = ___ a pasar la pelota?
5. Yo hablo con Pablo. = ____ habla.
6. Juan dice a ellos a correr. = ____ dice a correr.
7. Juan conoce a Maria? = ______ conoce?

One last important note:

When both the direct and indirect pronouns are next to each other and start with “L”, the first one changes to “se” no matter what.

For example:
Juan da la pelota a Pablo. = Le la da. — Se la da.

Describing things with Adjectives

Adjectives are used the same way as in English to describe something, but in Spanish they go after the word they describe, whereas in English they come before.

Also, in Spanish, they change according to the gender of the noun they describe.

For Example: “el cuarto (the room)” is masculine so the adjective ends in “-o”
-el cuarto limpio = the clean room

And… “La ropa” is feminine so the adjective would end in “-a”
-la ropa sucia = the dirty clothes

Here are the most common descriptive adjectives:

Grande- big
Pequeño- small
El hombre grande (the big man)

Mucho- a lot
Poco- a little
Quiero nadar mucho. (I want to swim a lot.)

Caro- expensive
Barato- cheap
El hotel caro (the expensive hotel)

Bello- beautiful
Feo- ugly
La mujer bella (the beautiful woman)

Limpio- clean
Sucio- dirty
El cuarto limpio (the clean room)

Alto- tall
Bajo- short
El pelotero alto (the tall ballplayer)

Lento= slow
Rápido= fast
el carro lento (the slow car)

Bueno= good
Malo= bad
La película estuvo buena. (The movie was good.)

Prepositions:

Prepositions are used primarily to describe the location of something in relation to something else.

Learn a few of the most common ones and your communication ability just went through the roof.

The most commonly used prepositions in Spanish:

On- sobre
In- dentro de/ en

Above/over – encima de
Under- debajo de
In front of – delante de
behind- detrás de
beside – al lado de
between- entre
inside- dentro de

Exercise: Based on the location of the ball in the picture, insert the corresponding preposition.  Click on Display images in your email reader.

Example: La pelota está al lado del velero. = The ball is beside the sailboat. P (When next to each other “de” and “el” run together to form “del”.)


1. La pelota está ______ el velero. (The ball is ____ the sailboat.)


2. La pelota está ______ el velero.


3. La pelota está ______ el velero.


4. La pelota está ______ el velero.

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